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European History Puzzle I

Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
_____ Revolution - the era of scientific thought in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642
____the Great - Ruled over Russia from 1682 to 1725. His goal was to create an army and a state that could stand against the most powerful European states
Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals and who gave the first accurate descriptions of microbes and spermatozoa and blood corpuscles (1632-1723)
___ van Rijn - most important painter during the Dutch Golden Age. Baroque master of shading and lighting - The Night Watch: Rembrandt's colossal painting of a company of Dutch fighters - The Syndics of the Drapers Guild: Rembrandt's work that demonstrates the status of middle- class businessmen during the Dutch Golden Age
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Writer of 18th century book "Wealth of Nations" in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government
___ the First - The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
___ the First - King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
___XIV - French king how established a powerful centralized monarchy. Established the prototype of absolutism
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
____the Great King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years; War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543), heliocentric theory